Vertebral discs are the spinal column’s shock absorbers. The discs cushion the vertebral bones and allow the spine to twist and bend. Vertebral discs are composed of two main parts, a soft inner nucleus (nucleus pulposis) and a tough, fibrous outer wall (annulus fibrosis).

This condition is a detereoration of the facet joints, which help stabilize the spine and limit excessive motion. The facet joints are lined with cartilage and surrounded by a lubricating capsule that enables the vertebrae to bend and twist.

This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas. Sciatica may result from a variety of problems with the bones and tissues of the lumbar spinal column.

This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.

This rupture of a vertebral disc can be caused by the normal wear of aging or by traumatic injury. A herniated disc can push painfully against a nerve root, sending pain down the sciatic nerve and resulting in a burning, tingling and/or numbing sensation from the lower back down to one or both feet.

Post laminectomy syndrome, also called failed back syndrome, is a continuous and chronic pain that can develop after certain types of back surgery.

Spinal stenosis results from new bone and soft tissue growth on the vertebrae, which reduces the space in the spinal canal. When the nerve roots are pinched, a painful burning, tingling and/or numbing sensation is felt from the lower back down to the legs and sometimes all the way to the feet.

This condition is an irritation of the sciatic nerve, a thick nerve that branches from the lumbar spine and travels through the buttocks and down the back of each leg. An irritation of the sciatic nerve can result in radiating pain or numbness from the buttocks down through the legs.